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«Україна – держава-трансформер, яку зібрала й контролює космополітично-денаціональна кланова мафія, що вибудувала в країні новітній неофеодалізм за принципом політико-економічного майорату. У цієї злочинної влади – приховане справжнє обличчя, що ховається під кількома масками, подвійне дно із вмонтованими нелегальними (нелегітимними) додатковими рушіями, механізмами та схемами управління, а шафа її уже давно переповнена потаємними скелетами, яким чим далі тим більше бракує у ній місця і які ось-ось виваляться на світ Божий» Павло Гай-Нижник

Pavlo Hai-Nyzhnyk

Matter of “Deutsche Luft Reederei”

Publication: Hai-Nyzhnyk P. Matter of "Deutsche Luft Reederei" // Ukraina dyplomatychna (Diplomatic Ukraine). - Kyiv, 2009. - Is.X. - P.424-438. 

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"Matter of "Deutsche Luft Reederaei"

(or when and on what terms governmental UNR was taken money from Germany)

In the article stated below we will look through an unexplored aspect by historians about the activity of one of the state structures of UNR (Ukrains'ka Narodna Respublika - Ukrainian People Republic) of times of Directory, namely - Financial secret service in Germany, which throws new light on a few directions of the Ukrainian governmental policy - financial, foreign and internal organization of work of government service. We should notice that financial secret service had extraordinary plenary powers for labour in Europe, exactly in her arms concentrated almost all foreign accounts and funds of monies of UNR and wide latitudes as for their use abroad and financing of the Ukrainian missions, representative offices and others like that.

One of many areas of work of financial secret service in Berlin, was the task of sending the Ukrainian signs of monies, booked in 1918 by the Ukrainian government for typing in the German state printing-house of "Reichsdrukerei", by the order of Directory. The so-called matter of "Deutsche Luft Reederei" arose up because of doing this task by financial secret service during test of its activity by the Checkup committee which arrived to Germany from Ukraine in 1920. A revision is interesting because the conclusions show not only the activity of Financial secret service of UNR in Europe but also brightly testify the moral qualities of civil servants of UNR from different stages and the common state of vertical line of public authorities for Directories.

Before answering for the certain question, it is necessary to remind that the Checkup committee headed by О.Skoropys-Joltuhovskyj was appointed after the order of minister of finance B. Martos on the 16th of December,1919.It did not start to work in time, but the chairman of Financial secret service in Germany G.Suprun did not let it to the revision. A minister of finance did not want to sharpen relationships with the secret Service and neither government nor Directory did not do any strong actions in relation to such self-will of chairman of Financial secret service up to March of 1920,when G.Suprun without any plenary powers stopped the payments to the the Ukrainian missions and embassies abroad. Financial secret service also, despite the categorical requirements of minister of finance, did not give to the government of UNR any reports in relation about the state money or about their activity.

All in all, even the order of minister of finance (from March, 31 1920), ratified Directory on the 8th of April,1920 about dismiss of G. Suprun on the 29th of March,1920 for non-fulfillment of orders and abuse of the plenary powers given to him, was acknowledged neither to them nor by the employees of financial secret services. Moreover G.Suprun renounced to pass the business, money and property to newly-appointed to his place Іv. Myrnyi, saying, that "Suprun does not acknowledge the government represented by Martos"[1]. At the same time governmental officials and employees stopped working in a secret Service. Only through the German court and personal guarantees to G.Suprun from the Ukrainian government it was allowed to begin verification of activity of financial secret service of UNR in Germany, which was accompanied with the concealment of document, sabotage and frank mockery from Ukrainian power.

The matter called "Deutsche Luft Reederei" appeared during work of checkup committee and became one of many episodes from the row of loud abuses, corruption, and moral degradation of considerable layer of higher governmental officials and governmental workers of UNR in a period of Directory only, in the days of, when the Ukrainian army conducted a victorious fight for a right for the people to have their own country.

At the beginning of January 1919 it was clear, that Ukrainian government lives its last days in Kyiv. Exactly while I.Mazepa remembered, "it is funny that the different Ukrainian missions were formed abroad"[2]. One of these missions was a Financial secret service of Ministry of finance of UNR.This mission was formed in January 1919 headed by the former director of credit office of folk ministry of finance of central advice by Grygory Suprun. It was initially planned that a financial agent would work in Berlin, Paris and London[3], but because of the political circumstances financial secret service and chairman settled in the capital of Germany. On December 1919 Ukrainian Financial secret service in Berlin had 14 official governmental officials, 3 "employees" and 2 hired governmental officials[4].

In that times the minister of finance government of Directory B.Martos remembered this occasion, saying "...as even in Kyiv it was difficult to organize the typing of money in sufficient amount", "sending an appointed financial agent G.Suprun abroad, gave him a task to organize the delivery of money from the Berlin printing-house, even if it would cost very expensive"[5]. There is a logical question: how expensive did this sending treat to the treasury of Ukraine, how many signs of monies were delivered from Berlin in the order of government of UNR and what is the nature of those facilities?

These were the Ukrainian signs of monies, which were printed in Germany after the order of governments of Central Advice and hetman P.Skoropadskyj. Former chairman of Council of folk ministers of UNR, remembering, that in the state printing-house of Germany remained about 10 milliards of hryvnyas after the times of Getmanat, marked their necessity, because "our financial state was more difficult, because main monetary reserves, taken by the Directory from Kyiv, were spended by previous governments on those legendary formings of different atamans...[6] Meanwhile with arrival of the Galichina army general necessities grew more than twice"[7].

Afterwards chairman of Financial secret service of Ministry of finance of UNR G.Suprun, according to B.Martos, sent from Germany to Ukraine "whole carriage of the prepared money and different printed matters, but Poland took Kholmschinu then, and a carriage went to Berlin"[8]. Exactly after this incident (B.Martos does not specify the date), he, through the special courier Khomyak, charged to Suprun to organize delivery of the Ukrainian money by skyway, and through the second courier (Scnar) gave an order to accelerate this business. Martos writes, that G.Suprun made an agreement with the Society of "Lufthansa", created in Germany, the German government sold large bomber-airplanes[9]. However, on this business there were errors which afterwards migrated to all historiography of revolutionary period of Ukrainian history in general and this business in particular.

As the archived documents ("Appendix of the Checkup committee to minister for finance UNR on business of revision of Financial secret service in Germany in times of a management by m. Suprun, from the 1st of February,1919 to the 30th of April, 1920") testify an agreement about the delivery of the Ukrainian signs of money to the government of UNR, it was concluded not from "Lufthansa", but with society of "Deutsche Luft Reederei" and it was done, on the certificate of financial agent G.Suprun, after proposition of Foreign Germany Ministry. The negotiations with "Deutsche Luft Reederei" on behalf of Financial secret service of Ministry of finance of UNR conducted F.Gershun, representative of state control in UNR Vronskiy and Aristarkhiv and were controlled directly by financial agent G.Suprun. Such an agreement was finished on the 4th of April, 1919[10]. In obedience to an agreement DLR took a duty to transport to Stanislaviv 20 thousand kilograms of load (Ukrainian signs of monies), the Ukrainian financial secret service was to pay (to society of "DLR") for 40 German brands for one kilogram of weight of load.

The Ukrainian side also had to allocate 750 thousand marks for the organization and purchase of an airplanes. Moreover, "because, the situation was very uncertain", DLR required to transmit on the Ukrainian side is 2 million 500 thousand marks to the bank, "as the quota for the timely and correct calculations for the transportation of cargo"[11]. The transport of Ukrainian money had to begin 14 days after the conclusion of the agreement be completed within two and a half months. Therefore 2 kg of load must was be transported every week. Thus, when the more indicated weight was transported, then the following scale of bonuses must was enter in force:


4-th week as a transportation of more than 2000 kg -100%

5- th " " " " " " " " - 100%

6- th " " " " " " " " - 80%

7- th " " " " " " " " - 60%

At the same time the Checkup committee of Minister of finances of UNR headed by І.Myrnyi (later will be replaced by E.Sokovych), that arrived from Ukraine to Berlin found out a number of circumstances: 1) despite the terms of agreement were marks payment, calculation from the Ukrainian side was carried out with Austrian crowns; 2) on the 12th of May,1919 "because the course of crowns very swings", DLR pulled out a requirement to go back to payment again in marks; 3) then Gershun, on behalf of Financial secret service of UNR, gives a consent on a call of DLR, that petrol for airplanes should be delivered from Kam'yanets-Podil'skyi[12]. In addition to this consultations started about the diminishing terms of transportations of all mass of money to two months.

In further days the terms of agreement got the new proof-reading. On the 17th of May, DLR declares, that the term of beginning of flights will begin only from that moment, when the Ukrainian representatives will bring 3 millions 250 thousand marks in "Natsional'bank of fur of Deichland". On the 21st of may Germans reported to the Finincial secret service of UNR, that they entered a consent with the Banker house "Herman" in Breslau about the lease of "Trezor Raum" for saving the Ukrainian money of, which was treated for 5 thousand marks monthly. On the 28th of May DLR to addressed to the Financial secret service of UNR the copy of policy of the Insurance company which made an agreement with DLR about insurance of airplanes of "R-69", "R-70" and "R-71" by a term of 6 months (that from the 20th of May, to the 19th of November,1919). On 2nd of Junes, 1919 DLR sent Ukrainians the notarized certificate of Raichdrukerei about delivery of 233 boxes with the Ukrainian money and complains, that from the side of representatives of UNR, that the best days pass and reminds a promise, that in case, when flights will not take place, in any case Ukrainian part will have to pay wastes to DLR. A letter sais that every day costs 1.500 marks. On the 4th of June the Ukrainians were informed about the post airplane, which was bought by the German society for 15.000 marks and exactly this sum of money the Financial secret service of UNR must pay to DLR.

By the letter from June 6, 1919. German society consents to change the point of setting of sent of airplanes from Stanislaviv to Kam'yanec'-Podil'skiy, but on condition of increase of paying for this favour on 10%. By this letter, DLR broaches a question about introduction of insurance of the airplanes. On June 26, 1919 "Deich Backlash of Reederai" sends the Ukrainian financial agent two letters, where sets the date of beginning of flights to Ukraine on June, 21 of that year, and in other one suggests to change (to move away) the terms of flights and produce them only after return first airplane to Germany. It absolutely violated the celled agreement, where it was expressly marked that the terms of flights begin in 2 weeks after bringing of payment by the Ukrainians. By this way the representatives of Financial secret service of UNR at the head with G.Suprun went to the concessions (unprofitable enough for the Ukrainian treasury) in relation to the correction of terms of agreement of transporting of money. On that day on the meeting the representatives of Financial secret service of UNR (Gershun, Wronski and Aristarkhiv) consented to pay 60 thousand m on depreciation, that it was in same queue approved by financial agent Suprun[13].

It was planned by German society of "Deutsche Backlash of Reederei" in 1919 to transport 12 thousands of 700 kg of the load Ukrainian currency to Ukraine» to the end of October, and after November, 1 the Germen considered to carry out flights for impossible. On August, 23 DLR offered Financial secret service of UNR, for the sake of acceleration of transportation of money, to purchase six large airplanes for 720 thousand m. This suggestion was accepted by the Ukrainians, as well as increase of paying for transportation of every kilogram to 120 brands. The Ukrainian agents went on this step in connection with the unsuccessful rates of transportation of money to Kam'yanec'- Podil'skyi.

Afterwards the German contractors pulled out a new agreement, where was set up a new size of load (12 thousands 700 kg), DLR pulled out the requirement of addition to him money deposit, in obedience to an initial agreement it must have been transported 20 thousands of kg of Load, but, if such weight weren't transported, the Ukrainian Financial secret service must recover society all losses. Representatives of UNR Wronsky, Gershun and Aristarkhiv (then Suprun was not in Berlin ) consented in satisfaction of 20 thousands m a week's, with a purpose, that DLR did not disband his organization (actually it was additionally prepaid for a segment from 1 to December 31, 1919). When in December G. Suprun, who had gone back to Berlin, reported DLR on December 12, that sending of money to Ukraine was halted in general and would not be picked up thread, the German society declared about impossibility stopping of agreement , while 20 thousands of kg of load weren't be transported exactly and, taking into account the fact of refusal of flights and transporting of money, has dismissed the organization and pulled out official claim to government of UNR. About 2 million brands were required "at harm during transportation" and additional compensation of losses "what DLR has from that did not transport all weight that he must do"[14]. It was unknown not only why Financial secret service weekly paid the money of DLR during December 1919 but also why exactly for 20 thousands m for a week, when it is known from letters "Deutsche Backlash of Reederai", that one day of organization costs 1 thousand 500 m (that for a week - 10 thousands of 500 m).

On it legal adviser of Financial secret service UNR F.Gershun pulled out claims in return the Ukrainian government to DLR. The most diffecalt question for UNR in a court to his mind must be a requirement of DLR in relation to the compensation of cost of airplane, taken captive in Romania (about this incident we will speak below). Other claims were considered by him or exaggerated, or unproven . "Just" solicitations of DLR were satisfied with an ordinary order by the decision of legal adviser F.Gershun's (who for his job, by the way, got 250 thousands of brands) and on a concordance with the representative of State control Wronski. For verification of conclusions of F.Gershun Financial secret service was hired Tikhtin and Heine, who in their resolutions (trafter due to the materials, given them by Gershun) came to the conclusion, that position of the Ukrainian legal adviser is faithful and grounded. On the basis of afore-mentioned analyses and shortchangings legal adviser Gershun, and representative of State control, Wronski reported DLR, that Financial secret service of UNR in Berlin considers claims of this society too exaggerated and groundless. After that tere were a number of meetings and negotiations, which, didn't give any positive results, and at the end of March in 1920 and halted at all.

At the same time, that the main argument of complaint of DLR was not appealed (and vice versa satisfied) causes a surprise (on what in 1920 the Checkup committee of Ministry of finance of UNR also paid attention), its main requirement is transportation 20 thousands of kg of money, that it was indeed foreseen by an agreement. However it was determined by that agreement and the term of beginning of flights and graph of transportations and these points were broken by the German side. The head of the Ukrainian Checkup committee E.Sokovych notices I of this occasion logically: "These two very important factors stepped back somehow on the second plan, and there is only gross weight which exists everywhere and not representatives of State control, not legal Adviser Gershun nowhere paid attention, that an amount of load of money was to services of DLR and it had already been their own business to transport the load in good time"[15]. It hadn't been transported by German society about 200 boxes with the Ukrainian money, which were lefting in Trezor Raum in Breslau till November 1920.

In addition, beginning from the project of agreement from April 14, 1919 two important points were expressly and clear marked everywhere: 1) that the term of beginning of flights must be deducted in two weeks after bringing of money in the National bank of fur of Deichland (the first flight was carried out only on June 20 ,1919 and 2) that transportation of the Ukrainian money signs must take place for two months . The representatives of Financial secret service of UNR from some reasons did not adhere to these concrete terms during the conduct of talks with DLR and did not insist on their implementation, and on the contrary - went to the concessions the groundless additional requirements of the German side, incurring additional losses (groundless charges) to the treasury.

There were other groungless actions and payments of Financial secret service. So, for example, for the first flight to Kam'yanec'-Podil'skyi to German society was paid 33 thousands 462 brands for a load which weighed 760 kg (in like with the contract flying away by airplane from Germany DLR must get the half of necessary sum)[16]. However, the prepaid sum included for itself a 100% bonus. Strange financial generosity from the side of Financial secret service of UNR, it was in fact determined by an agreement, that it must be transported 20 thousands of kg for two months, and it must be set up a 100% bonus only in the event of delivery more than 2thousands of kg of load within 2 weeks. Consequently - a bonus was paid the Germen groundlessly.

It is possible also to bespatter and groundless charges of state money and unscrupulousness of representatives of Financial secret service of UNR and on business of purchase of airplanes. The Checkup committee of Ministry of finance of UNR set that prices which dictated Financial secret service of DLR were too high. For example, it was set by Commission, that somebody Fogt offered to Financial secret service to purchase airplanes for 60 thousands m, while the Ukrainian representatives did not pay attention to this suggestion and purchased airplanes for 120 thousands marks[17]. On the whole Ukrainian Financial secret service purchased airplanes for DLR for 1 million 470 thousands marks[18].

It's beyond understanding a person m. Radke, who was hired by the members of financial secret service as an expert in aeroplanes, whose duty was to examine machines. It remained without an answer why from the calculated Berlin technical specialists or scientific organizations in this industry, to which was not done any official query, a choice was done on nobody unknown Radke, on the basis of his conclusions aiwere bought airplanes and paid enormous state facilities[19]. It is interesting , that following expert Radke's advice after a purchase of airplanes on an afore-mentioned sum, that Radke soon proposes Financial secret service an account from DLR on repair of motors in 4 airplanes to the amount of 86 thousands of brands[20]. And Financial secret service of UNR pays it, although in like with agreement exactly DLR must be responsible for those cases which was characterized as consequences of technical disrepairs.

Checkup committee marked also that "when in Ukraine there was a large requirement in money, when indeed existence of the State could depend on timely delivery of money - transportation of money conducted very languidly"[21]. Essence of question consisted in that, why, if the project of the first agreement from DLR were presented for Financial secret service of UNR on April 14, 1919, first flight of airplane to Ukraine would take place only on June 20, 1919. In accordance with the agreement, the beginning of passage of money to Ukraine must be begun after payment of 3 mln. 250 thousands of brands by Financial secret service, what Financial secret service could not carry out, according to the financial agent of G.Suprun, because of absence of proper money in its order. The Checkup committee set in same queue, that such statement of financial agent was a lie. It was discovered that on February 3, 1919 G.Suprun had got 8 mln. 400 thousands of brands in the bank , from which 1 million 400 brands the next day he paid the German state printing-house and the rest of sum remained at his disposal. From this money he does not pay necessary payment by contract with DLR to the National bank of fur of Deichland, and, brings in this bank 4 mln. 600 thousands of brands with the purpose of purchase of securities for the merchants ,brothers of Rabinovich's to carry out a sleeping transaction with a purchase and sale of tea. One package of these securities was resent to Holland (to Amsterdam), and the other one was failed to send because of prohibition on send of securities from Germany to abroad. On May, 4 a bank turned G.Suprun money for the not sent package of securities. Besides, on May 24 G.Suprun passes to the brothers of Rabinovich 2 millions 300 m cash[22]. Thus transaction with tea ,which is worthy of separate scientifically research, was for the Ukrainian financial agent G.Suprun in Berlin (in the union with the representative of state control Vronski) more important case, than verification of money to Ukraine, government and army of which were in uttery difficult and financial circumstances and which extraordinarily needed in money.

Money in like with the agreement from DLR (3 mln. 250 thousands of brands) was brought to the National bank of fur of Deichland only after liberation at the beginning of May 1919 r. in Vienna from under the arrest 85 million crowns, and that only on June 11, 1919. Thus the terms of duty variant of agreement were not executed from DLR (from May, 14), and the following was considerably burdensome for UNR from what the Ukrainian treasury again suffered severe financial losses which could be avoided. Not speaking about a requirement in the money of army and government of UNR in Ukraine.

It was fastened by the Ukrainian side the German heavy bombers such as R-69, R-70 and R-71, developed by the business concern "Zeppelin-Staaken". First the similar bomber R-14 rose in air in 1917. These were the largest battle airplanes of period of the first world war. The width of overhead wing made 4,6 m, and lower wing - 3,6 m, scope of wing - 42,2 of mcode, speed of flight - 135 km on a hour. In Air they were lifted by five 260-powerful motors of firm "Maybakh" (power 180 kVt) and afterwards - 4 PD Mercedes D.IVa (power 190 kVt), four from which were located in tamdem's wings, and fifth - in the nose of plain. Due to the high power-saving these airplanes-giants could carry the fantastic at those times battle loading - over 4 tones (for comparison: Russian "Il'ya Muromets" lifted about 500 kg of bombs, and the best English and French sets of weights bombers - a little more than tone. Distance of flight with the standard loading (2t) made a 1300 km .The quantity of crew consisted of 7 persons, armament - from four to six machine guns of "Parabellum". During the world war-time such airplanes except the firm "Schtaaken" were assembled also on firms "Automobile and Aviatic AG" (Leyptsig), "Lyuftshiffbau Shyute - Lyants" (Gessen) "Aviatic", "Shyute - Lyants" and "Albatros'.

The first airplane flew away from Germany to Ukraine on June 20, 1919 and brought to Kam'yanets-Podil'skyi 760 kg of money, for what in Berlin it was prepaid DLR 33 thousands 462 brands by Financial secret service of UNR[23]. Former chief of department of the oversea press of the General staff of army of UNR I. Makogon, who escaped to Poland and on November 26, 1919 gave denikin's soldiers a white-paper about the officers of the Ukrainian army, reporting that from Berlin to Ukraine in good time by airplanes are on the average outlay 50-100 millions of krb each 10-12 days. Sometimes, he marked, that were sent tsar's roubles by a cost for 500 roubles (80 mln. - October 5 (18) 1919)[24]. But he thought wrong, that sending was organized by the ambassador of UNR, M. Porsh in Germany, however ,it has been already known, that in actual fact this business was influenced by Financial secret service of UNR in Berlin. I. Makagon wrote also, that a money has been transported by the enormous vehicles of type "Murometc", only larger. As it has been marked by me higher, in actual fact there were airplanes "R-69", "R-70" but "R-71". B.Martos adds, that three five-engined airplanes were used for transportation and two a bit less three-engined, "but all of them have been already worn enough"[25]. It indeed was so. Four just purchased airplanes which were specified higher, soon already needed in repair of motors. B.Martos narrates, that airplanes have often deteriorated, "sometimes it was managed to repair them by the own efforts, but an airplane must expect more frequent, while through the second airplane gave to know about it in Berlin, and only the third airplane brought a motor or other spare part"[26]. Because of such state of aircrafts did not do without failures and accidents during the flights. Airplanes would fall and be fired often.

Thus, on October, 8 one of airplanes, that already returned from Kam'yants-Podil'skyi fell down and broken up above territory of Poland. About other case pidp. I.Makogon testified that on October, 25 in 1919 near-by Krakov Polish of "for a fun" it was brought down one of such airplanes. All passengers and pilots were perished, money soon had been returned to Ukrainian governmental. Senior pilot of other airplane, German officer, returning already from Kam'yants-Podil'sky to Berlin arbitrary, without permition of the Ukrainian side, set to bring a passenger to Vienna, where his airplane was arrested by an antants control commission. Another airplane was forcedto land was in Galichina because of some problems with motors, not flying so far to Kam'yanets[27]. August, 2 in 1919 not far from Poland (in the district of Poznan) without any reason another airplane was in fire and fell down in Germany (in a fence surrounding village of Ratibor). All passengers, including first state secretary of businesses of soldieries ZUNR (West Ukrainian People Republic), perished regiment. D.Vitovskiy, which was afterwards buried in Berlin (in 2002 he was reburied in Lviv).

On this occasion we should analyze it. In notes to edition of diary of E.Chykalenko, V.Verstyuk and О.Boiko were wrong, when specify that D.Vitovskiy perished on July, 8 in 1919 in an air crash and this error then migrated in other concluded by them edition[28]. Does not answer reality and report of already mentioned pidp. I.Makogon's, which asserted that falling of airplane had taken place on September, 7 because he was brought down[29]. It looks like truth: a date on Augusts, 4 in 1919, which was set at one time S.Ripetskiy, М.Zaklinskuy and which is often used by present historians[30]. However and this date is something inexact.

According to the investigation of Ukrainian Inspection Committee in Germany 2 planes ("R-70" and "R-71") were going to fly away with money from Breslau to Kamianets-Podilskyi on August, 2 at 3.30 a.m. The first plane ("R-70") took on board except money a person - U.Bachinskyi and timely flew away. Other plane ("R-71"), which D.Vitovskyi wanted to use for his flight didn't fly away because of motor breakage and it should have been repaired. This very day it flew away (with D.Vitovkyi on the board) from Breslau at about 10 a.m. (according to the Fogt's report which while submitting the information about sending of money says that the airplane flew away at 10 a.m. because of motor breakage and its repairing)[31]. This fact is officially written in the report of Inspection Committee in Berlin for UNR government. As the plane didn't stop on this way it could undergo an accident at the border of then German and Poland only on August, 2 1919 and thus this date is concerned to be the date of D.Vitovskyi death*. Later on according to the appearing conversations and gossips the Polish plane attacked this airplane and destroyed it or it was brought down, etc[32]. Absolutely it is fictions. The plane was crashed because of motor breakage and D.Vitovskyi was burried on a cemetery of Gugenot in Berlin on August,14 1919.

On August, 24 the plane "R-71" undergone an accident and fell down in Rauden city, money which was on its board was burnt down[33]. Other plane which transported money for Ukrainian government didn't fly over Galicia but over Bukovina and didn't reached 10 km. to Dnister because of breakage of all 5 motors on the territory of Romania. The cars from ukrainian side of Dnister were directed to the other side of the river, but romanian soldiers reached it the first and threatening with the weapon arrested german pilots and ukrainian officcial (after a while german pilots were interned and ukrainian was freed). An airplane and money (300 million UAH) was confiscated[34]. No measures of the Ukrainian mission in Bucharest in relation to returning even of facilities did not have success. І. Mazepa explains such position, that by then Romania did not have the signed world agreement with Germany, adds however, that afterwards these 300 million UAH, that transported an airplane, however passed to it was the Ukrainian representative office in Bucharest, but they got in the order of government of UNR in 1920[35].

On the whole from Breslau to Kam'yants-Podil'skyi 18 flights were carried out and a 1 milliard is transported 242 millions 140 thousands of hryvnyas[36] which, sure extremely needed governmental and to the army of UNR in difficult times of summer-autumn 1919**. These facts refute claim of B. Martos as though airplanes with money carried out only a few flights to Ukraine[37]. Thus, it should be noted that minister for finance, and afterwards chairman of Council of folk ministers of UNR, could not know that flights more ten (instead of a few) was done at least, but consequently taking into account numerous criticism of his financial policy, such understating of amount of deliveries of money, B.Martos obviously aimed to justify an own uneffective money policy, and possibly and abuse or unjustified financial "peculation".

The governmental Checkup committee, which checked up activity of Financial secret service of UNR in Berlin, taking into account afore-mentioned facts came (in 1921) to such previous conclusions in relation to the "matter of "Deutsche Luft Reederei":

"1) Suprun, being in a position in good time to bring in a money in Bank - did not do it, by investigation: and) ill-timed delivery of money to Ukraine. As though instead of purchases of securities shares by Brothers Rabinovich, in good time money of D.L.R. would be possibly delivered, that total amountof money would send to Ukraine; b) severe financial losses, because afterwards D.L.R. passed to more dear terms;

2) Representatives of Financial secret Service are legal adviser Gershun, representatives of State Control of Vronskiy and Aristarkhiv did not protect interests of the State and almost send under the thumb of all desires of D.L.R., satisfying them always for after to the conditions of the agreement;

3) on business from D.L.R. there were illegal actions and changes of terms, final agreements obviously not on a benefit to the Ukrainian State"[38].

Auditing committee wasn't fated/destined to carry out the investigation and bring it to judicial decision concerning supply of the currency notes to the Ukraine and UNR's Financial secret service of the Ministry of Finance activity in Berlin both. By order of the new UNR's minister of finance Kh.Baranovsky under date of the December 1st, 1920 Financial secret service was eliminated (for lack of finances), its premises were shut down and all of the officials were either dismissed or sent to the Ministry of Finance without any allowance[39]; Auditing committee was closed down soon after. To finish revision concerns and acts preparation the order of selfsame Kh. Baranovsky under date of the December 17th, 1920 allowed employees of the committee to work only until February 1st, 1921 without any maintenance[40], though committee members repeatedly pointed out that they had investigated only separate episodes of G.Suprun's activities and his co-workers and were ready to continue their work having combined it with juridical analysis and legal case consequently.

Nevertheless out of the facts disclosed during UNR's Financial secret service of the Ministry of Finance in Germany's revision activity one can see the deep roots of corruption and immorality of UNR's financial agent G.Suprun that de facto had emergency and individual powers to manage public funds of Ukraine from the abroad, criminal cooperation of nearly every secret service official, sabotage and rudimentary irresponsibility, that were connected with awareness of impurity. Other fields of UNR's Financial secret service activity revision being not enlighten in this article refer to the fact that financial machinations, corruption and thieveries of public funds being accomplished by the head and members of Financial secret service had close interlacing with the most influential statesmen, politicians and organizations of UNR. Thus we can assume that curtailing of Auditing committee's functioning by UNR's minister of finance Kh.Baranovsky was connected not only with military-political complications with Ukrainian authority of that time.

Obviously organization of the rule in UNR in time of the Directory was absolutely inefficient (it can be seen not only by analyzing Ministry of Finance work in the Germany but in O.Serdyuk's activities in Italy, ukrainian representatives' at Paris peace conference, party and personal quota principles of officials' appointment, atamans' presence in Ukraine, helplessness of state control and judicial system, conflicts inside of the Directory, actual debility of governmental structures and practical usurpation of power by senior ataman, scale of which came to nothing more than area of his personal presence etc), so it permitted such elements not only to undermine Ukrainian statehood from the inside, but to discredit it in the eyes of the world community and its own people both. Designated facts only confirm that financial and statesmaking problems of UNR in time of the Directory were more serious than common "corruption" of Suprun and other of that kind, and they were concealed in initial principles of UNR's tate authority system organization and corruption.


* After funerals D.Vitovsky, In Berlin at hotel "Edem" restaurant there was a memory supper on which there were 20 persons. We will mark that the dishes, flowers, liqueurs, fruit and cigarettes, booked for a supper were prepaid due to Financial secret service of UNR in Berlin (5 thousand 558 marks of 35 pf.) [Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 104].

** Considerable part of cargo (it is more than 200 boxes) nevertheless have not been transported and was in Breslau till November, 1920 (Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 28 зв.).



[1] Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 4.

[2] Мазепа І. Україна в огні й бурі революції. - К.: Темпора, 2003. - С. 80.

[3] Директорія, Рада Народних Міністрів Української Народної Республіки. Листопад 1918 - листопад 1920 рр.: Документи і матеріали. - Т. 1. - К.: Вид-во імені Олени Теліги, 2006. - С. 188.

[4] Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 14а зв.

[5] Мартос Б. Українська валюта 1917-1920 років // Мартос Б., Зозуля Я. Гроші Української Держави. - Мюнхен: Український технічно-господарський інститут, 1972. - С. 24.

[6] Дивіться: Гай-Нижник П. П. Київський період відновленої УНР: фінанси і політика (14 грудня 1918 р. - 5 лютого 1919 р.) // Наукові праці історичного факультету Запорізького державного університету. - Запоріжжя: Просвіта, 2008. - Вип. ХХIV: Соціальні та економічні чинники революцій і реформ в Україні: проблеми взаємоємовпливів. - С.165-175.

[7] Мазепа І. Україна в огні й бурі революції. - К.: Темпора, 2003. - С. 229.

[8] Мартос Б. Українська валюта 1917-1920 років // Мартос Б., Зозуля Я. Гроші Української Держави. - Мюнхен: Український технічно-господарський інститут, 1972. - С. 24.

[9] Ibidem.

[10] Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 27.

[11] Ibidem.

[12] Ibidem. - К. 27 зв.

[13] Ibidem. - К. 27 зв. - 28.

[14] Ibidem. - К. 28.

[15] Ibidem. - К. 28 зв.

[16] Ibidem. - К. 29.

[17] Ibidem. - К. 29-29 зв.

[18] Ibidem. - К. 30.

[19] Ibidem. - К. 29-29 зв.

[20] Ibidem. - К. 30.

[21] Ibidem. - К. 29 зв.

[22] Ibidem.

[23] Ibidem. - К. 29.

[24] Ковальчук М. Невідома війна 1919 року: українсько-білогвардійське збройне протистояння. - К.: Темпора, 2006. - С. 457.

[25] Мартос Б. Українська валюта 1917-1920 років // Мартос Б., Зозуля Я. Гроші Української Держави. - Мюнхен: Український технічно-господарський інститут, 1972. - С. 25.

[26] Ibidem.

[27] Ibidem.

[28] Чикаленко Є. Х. Щоденник, 1919-1920. - Київ; - Нью-Йорк: Вид-во Олени Теліги, 2005. - С. 560; Директорія, Рада Народних Міністрів Української Народної Республіки. Листопад 1918 - листопад 1920 рр.: Документи і матеріали. - Т. 2. - К.: Вид-во імені Олени Теліги, 2006. - С. 694 та ін.

[29] Ковальчук М. Невідома війна 1919 року: українсько-білогвардійське збройне протистояння. - К.: Темпора, 2006. - С. 457.

[30] Ріпецький С. Дата смерти полк. Дмитра Вітовського // Вільна Україна. - 1960. - Зб. 26. - С. 51-53; Заклинський М. Дмитро Вітовський. Громадський діяч, стрілецький ідеолог, вождь Листопадового зриву, секретар військових справ ЗО УНР. - Нью-Йорк: Червона калина, 1067. - С. 117-118; Веденєєв Д. В. Вітовський Дмитро Дмитрович // Енциклопедія сучасної України. - К., 2005. - С. 635 та ін.

[31] Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 30-30 зв.

[32] Ibidem. - К. 30.

[33] Ibidem. - К. 99 зв.

[34] Мартос Б. Українська валюта 1917-1920 років // Мартос Б., Зозуля Я. Гроші Української Держави. - Мюнхен: Український технічно-господарський інститут, 1972. - С. 25.

[35] Мазепа І. Україна в огні й бурі революції. - К.: Темпора, 2003. - С. 301.

[36] Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 28.

[37] Мартос Б. Українська валюта 1917-1920 років // Мартос Б., Зозуля Я. Гроші Української Держави. - Мюнхен: Український технічно-господарський інститут, 1972. - С. 24

[38] Biblioteka Narodowa w Warszawie. - Скр. 23 ХХІV-10 (17). - К. 30 зв.

[39] Ibidem. - К. 12.

[40] Ibidem. - К. 12-12 зв.


 
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